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Z-Wave is an RF (radio frequency) based wireless networking technology used primarily in office automation and smart home networks, allowing smart devices to connect and exchange data and control commands with each other. A Z-Wave network consists of internet of things (IoT) devices and the main controller, known as a smart home hub, which is the only device in a Z-Wave network that is usually connected to the internet. When a Z-Wave hub receives a command from a smart home application on a user’s device like a smartphone, tablet, or computer, it routes the command to its destination device across networks of devices including the hub.

The Z-Wave protocol operates on the low-frequency 908.42 band in the U.S. and the 868.42 MHz band in Europe. Though interference with other home electronics is possible, the protocol avoids interference with the 2.4 GHz band where the Wi-Fi and Bluetooth operate. Z-Wave offers transmission rates of small data packets using throughput rates of 9.6 kbps, 40 kbps, or 100 kbps. The Z-Wave PHY and MAC layers are based on the ITU-T G.9959 global radio standard, and the protocol uses GFSK modulation and Manchester encoding. It also includes AES 128 encryption, IPv6, and multichannel operation.

Z-Wave offers smarter, intelligible, safer, and energy-efficient solutions for smart homes, security, and office automation. Z-Wave technology offers a wide range of smart access control solutions with user-friendly touch panels and keypads. Fingerprint scanners and an extremely secure mode of access can be configured using Z-Wave technology. Users can be easily added to the database and special access privileges and authentication can be granted to selected members. Z-Wave provides advanced home automation solutions. Any appliances compatible with Z-Wave technology can be added to the smart home network. These devices and home appliances can be securely controlled using Smartphone apps. Z-Wave home automation solutions include smart power plugs, smart energy outlets, power modules, temperature, and smoke alarms, smart window covering (using motor control), smart lighting, etc. Z-Wave provides smart solutions for Indoor and outdoor security, monitoring systems, and alarms. Smoke and temperature detectors will continuously monitor and trigger alarms when the measured level exceeds the set threshold value. Accurate water and flood sensors are used in water management and smart city systems. Smart sensors will monitor water level round the clock and trigger once the level exceeds. Smart USB will convert any personal computer running Z-Wave software to a smart hub for home automation applications. Any compatible devices can be connected to the networks and can easily control them.