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IoT OS, known as IoT Operating System, is essentially the central processing unit and central nervous system of any computing system, including computers, servers, cellphones, and detectors. The operating system controls all of a system’s equipment and software, as well as all resources such as processing, memory, and storage. An IoT operating system is an operating system that is tailored to the specific needs and specifications of IoT systems and applications. It is essential for IoT system connectivity, security, networking, storage, remote device management, as well as other specifications. Some IoT operating systems also support real-time processing and are known as real-time operating systems, or RTO for short.

The IoT operating system is the device’s brain and central system, similar to a normal operating system found on a desktop or laptop computer. The role of an operating system is to manage all the hardware and software on the devices, as well as to distribute all the device’s resources for capabilities, such as processing, memory, and storage. The IoT OS allows devices to connect with cloud computing services. When the data arrives at the cloud host, the system generates it based on the use case and generates whatever it was designed to do. The remote server may send a signal back to the IoT system to request extra data based on the results of this processing.

The body dimensions of IoT devices are shrinking; some are even required to be durable. These physical factors impose significant constraints on the devices and, as a result, the operating systems. An IoT OS is deemed successful when it can run an application, store and analyze data on the network IoT device, and be ingrained within an internet-connected device without being overused. Creating an IoT operating system is a feat of software development, as programmers face severe difficulties. Today’s modern operating systems support flexibility, accessibility, and other functionalities. All the functionalities that you’ve grown to accept from many of the cloud-based services are gradually being initiated to those “things.” Of course, there are some exceptions.

OS categories include general-purpose OS, mobile OS, and real-time OS. Each of them has unique characteristics.

General-Purpose Operating Systems: These operating systems use process or connection and hardware management to allow various applications to share existing hardware. Numerous desktops and laptops run these operating systems, which include Windows, Unix/Linux, macOS, and others.

Mobile operating systems: These are designed to enable mobile applications by allowing multiple applications to run at the same time on a small device. They work on communication-oriented devices that prioritize user needs, optimal operation, and online media. The most popular mobile operating systems are Google Android and Apple iOS.

Real-Time Operating Systems (RTO): Real-time operating systems are intended for real-world entities that operate under time constraints, such as providing signals to motor drives, sensors, or control valves.

Embedded operating systems: Some commonly used devices, such as ATMs or point-of-sale stations, require extremely powerful operating systems capable of handling multiple operations in a short period.

Network Operating system: The highly specialized operating system is expected to establish the interaction between multiple network devices within a LAN, such as routers or switches. Cisco IOS, ZyNOS, and RouterOS have been popular uses of network operating systems.